USF Shimberg Health Sciences Library

Public Health Library Guide

Search Frameworks

PICO

  • Population/Patient - What is the population or characteristics?
  • Intervention - What is the intervention?
  • Comparison - What is the comparator, if any?
  • Outcome - What are the expected outcomes, improvements, measures, etc?

May also include one or more of the following:

  • Time - Is there a specific time-frame involved?
  • Type of Question - Diagnosis, Therapy, Etiology/Harm/Prevention, Prognosis
  • Type of Study - Prospective, Retrospective, Cohort, Case-Control, Randomized Controlled Trial, etc.

SPICE

  • Setting - What is the setting/context? Where?
  • Population/Perspective - Who are the users, potential users, stakeholders of the particular service? For whom?
  • Intervention - What is being done? 
  • Comparison - What else has been tried?
  • Evaluation - What measurement will be used to determine the success?  What is the result?

ECLIPSE

  • Expectation - Why is the information needed?
  • Client Group - Who needs, or will use, the information?
  • Location - Where is the service taking place?
  • Impact - What is being evaluated? How will success be measured?
  • Professionals - Who provides the service?
  • Service - What is the service being evaluated?