USF Shimberg Health Sciences Library

Search More Effectively

Search Frameworks

A well-defined research question helps identify the concepts to search to answer your question.  Search frameworks help you create a research question by suggesting elements you to consider. Not all questions are suited for a single framework. Several of the more common frameworks are found below.

PICO

  • Population/Patient/Problem - What is the population or characteristics?

  • Intervention/Exposure - What is the intervention, exposure, prognostic factor, treatment, etc.?

  • Comparison - What is the comparator, if any?

  • Outcome - What are the expected outcomes, improvements, measures, etc?

 

PISCO

  • Population/Patient/Problem - What is the population or characteristics?

  • Intervention/Exposure - What is the intervention, exposure, prognostic factor, treatment, etc.?

  • Setting (if appropriate) - Hospital, Outpatient, School, Rural

  • Comparison or intervention (if appropriate) - What are you comparing the intervention with?

  • Outcome  - What is the outcome you want to measure or achieve

 

SPICE

  • Setting - What is the setting/context? Where?

  • Population/Perspective - Who are the users, potential users, stakeholders of the particular service? For whom?

  • Intervention - What is being done? 

  • Comparison - What else has been tried?

  • Evaluation - What measurement will be used to determine the success?  What is the result?

 

ECLIPSE

  • Expectation - Why is the information needed?

  • Client Group - Who needs, or will use, the information?

  • Location - Where is the service taking place?

  • Impact - What is being evaluated? How will success be measured?

  • Professionals - Who provides the service?

  • Service - What is the service being evaluated?

 

SPIDER (Qualitative)

  • Sample – Who is engaging in the research?

  • Phenomenon of Interest – What or how are we trying to understand (experiences, behaviors, decisions) of participants?

  • Design -  Theoretical framework (questionnaire, survey, interview, etc.)

  • Evaluation - What measurement will be used to evaluate the PI?

  • Research Type - Qualitative or mixed methods

Search Frameworks (video)