Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA (7th Edition)

APA 7th Edition Changes

The biggest changes in the 7th edition are:

The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.

6th ed. Covey, S.R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful
                     lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

7th ed. Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful
                     lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.

The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. Only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.

6th ed. (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)

7th ed.  (Taylor et al., 2018)

Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.

6th ed. Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S.,
                    Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018).

7th ed. Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S.,
                    Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P.,
                    Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B.,
                     Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).

DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.
 

6th ed. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

7th ed. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.

6th ed. Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth
                        remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-
                        50419127

7th ed. Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth
                        remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included.

6th ed. Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and
                     satellites [Kindle version]. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

7th ed. Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and
                     satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

Inclusive and bias-free language

Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic.

The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include:

The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.

Instead of: A researcher’s career depends on how often he or she is cited.

Use: A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited.

Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred.

Instead of: The poor

Use: People living in poverty

Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific.

Instead of: People over 65 years old

Use: People in the age range of 65 to 75 years old

APA Paper format

In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:

Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11.

The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title.

6th ed. Running head: THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET

7th ed. THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET

The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise).

Mechanics of style

In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:

Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence.

Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics.

APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun they

APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”