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Applied Anthropology for Undergraduates

Citation Central


As of September 2015, AAA style (for all publications) follows the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, particularly in regard to reference citations. Here are some quick tips to help you create proper citations! 

In-text citations 

  • Place citations in parentheses and include the author’s name and the year of publication, with no intervening punctuation, at the end of a sentence or before a comma or semicolon, whenever possible: (Herzfeld 2005).
  • Always include page numbers for direct quotations or extensive paraphrases, using an en dash for page ranges: (Herzfeld 2005, 146–47). (Note: page numbers are preceded by a comma, not a colon; this is a major change from the AAA Style Guide.)
  • Use semicolons to separate two or more references in a single parenthetical citation and list them alphabetically: (Bessire and Bond 2014; Comaroff 1996; Daser 2014; Foucault 2000).
  • Do not include “ed.” or “trans.” in citations (and in the case of books that have been reprinted or updated, do not include the original publication year), as this information will be included on the reference list.
  • Use the first author’s last name and et al. for works with four or more authors.
  • You may use the following abbreviations: , e.g., and i.e. Do not use ibid., passim, op. cit., and so on. Only very rarely would we use ff., “when referring to a section for which no final number can usefully be given” (CMS 14.156).

Reference list

  • Do not embed the reference list in the endnotes.
  • Include all sources cited in the text, listed alphabetically by author. Do not include other works that you have consulted, unless you have cited them in text. 
  • When including multiple works by the same author, list them chronologically, from oldest to most recent.
  • For works published by the same author in the same year, add a, b, and so on, and list them alphabetically by title.

Looking for an example of an AAA citation?

The following examples, which display various types of citations, are great to use as guides when formatting your reference list.


Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Book Chapters

Comaroff, Jean. 1996. “The Empire’s Old Clothes: Fashioning the Colonial Subject.” In Cross-Cultural Consumption: Global Markets, Local Realities, edited by David Howes, 19–38. London: Routledge.

Chapter in Multivolume Work

Foucault, Michel. 2000. “Lives of Infamous Men.” In Power, edited by James Faubion and translated by Robert Hurley, 157–77. Vol. 3 of The Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, edited by Paul Rabinow. New York: New Press. First published 1977.

Journal Articles

Yates-Doerr, Emily. 2015. “Does Meat Come from Animals? A Multispecies Approach to Classification and Belonging in Highland Guatemala.” American Ethnologist 42(2): 309–23. doi:10.1111/amet.12132.

**DOIs should be included only if you really did consult the article online. They are preferable to URLs, being more stable. No access date is necessary in this case.

Online Resources

*Daser, Deniz. 2014. “AE Interviews Catherine Lutz (Brown University).” American Ethnologist website, May 9. Accessed [May 18, 2018]. http://americanethnologist.org/2014/ae-interviews-catherine-lutz-brown-university.

*Note that online references require an access date.

Multimedia Source

Lemelson, Robert, dir. 2009. 40 Years of Silence: An Indonesian Tragedy. Los Angeles: Elemental Productions. DVD.

Single Author and Coauthors

Meyer, Birgit. 2010. “Aesthetics of Persuasion: Global Christianity and Pentecostalism's Sensational Forms.” South Atlantic Quarterly 109(4):741-63.

Meyer, Birgit, and Annelies Moors. 2006. Religion, Media, and the Public Sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Multiple References by the Same Author

Stout, Noelle. 2014. “Bootlegged: Unauthorized Circulation and the Dilemmas of Collaboration in the Digital Age.” Visual Anthropology Review 30 (2): 177–87.

Stout, Noelle. 2015a. “Generating Home.” Cultural Anthropology Online, March 30. Accessed [Month Day, Year]. http://culanth.org/fieldsights/655-generating-home.

Stout, Noelle. 2015b. “When a Yuma Meets Mama: Commodified Kin and the Affective Economies of Queer Tourism in Cuba.” Anthropological Quarterly 8 (33): 663–90