The use of any material created and/or previously published by others usually requires permissions to use in your ETD. This includes images found on the web, figures from a report by a foreign government, tables from a process manual, and more. It is always better to assume that you need permissions.
These permissions can be very easy to obtain, but can also take some time. It is recommended that you begin your permissions requesting process as soon as you know what material you will be including in your work.
A grant of permissions can be as simple as an email saying that they, as the copyright owner, give you permissions to use the material (including the name and description of the material) in your ETD. This communication can be added to your permissions appendix.
Some uses of copyrighted material in ETDs may be considered a fair use under copyright law. Each use of copyrighted content should be evaluated individually. The Fair Use Checklist can help you with this.
The first step to requesting permissions is to find the copyright owner. Because authors sometimes transfer their copyrights to publishers during the publication process, the copyright owner is often the publisher and not the original creator. It is a good idea to visit the publisher site to locate information on permissions requesting. Some publishers have developed tools to help you locate the right person to ask for permissions. For example:
Once you've located the copyright owner, and if they do not have a proscribed method of accepting permissions requests (like RightsLink), you should remember to include as much information about your proposed use as possible in your request or use a template form:
RightsLink is a service through the Copyright Clearance Center that many scholarly publishers use to automate the permissions requesting process for journal articles and figures. Links to start the RightsLink process are usually at the article or chapter level in the online version of a journal or book. They may be labeled 'permissions and copyright,' 'request permissions,' or a myriad of other similar phrases. After clicking this link you will be taken through a step by step process of obtaining a license/permissions for your use. Oxford University Press has excellent instructions on this process: